Valencia [va lεntsia, also va lεnsia, Spanish ba lenθ a, ba catalan lens a ], Catalan Valencia, provincial and regional capital and third largest city in Spain, 16 meters above sea level, 3 km from the Mediterranean coast to the rubble cone of the Túria, (2020) 800 200 residents.
Archbishopric; University (founded in 1502), TU, museums, international fairs, garrison; Seat of the independent water court “Tribunal de les aigües de V.” (oldest permanent court in the world, installed by the Arabs in 960). Inland, Valencia is surrounded by the Horta de Valencia (28,000 hectares of garden land irrigated by eight canals and many wells), important agricultural trade (oranges, mandarins, lemons, rice, vegetables, wine, olives, cooking oil). Valencia is the fourth largest industrial center in the country with automotive, mechanical engineering, production of diesel locomotives, metal, chemical, electrotechnical, furniture, leather, food, beverage, tobacco industry, shipbuilding and has a technology park with research and testing institutes; Tourism (seaside resorts El Saler, La Devesa). Important traffic junction; Metro (156 km route, 27 km of which underground). From the port (with container terminals, marinas and pier for cruise ships) there are ferry lines to Mallorca, Ibiza, the Canary Islands and North African ports; Manises International Airport 9 km west.
The old town still shows remnants of the Arab town plan in the north, and to the south there are chessboard-like expansion zones (»Eixamples«; 1865–1900, 1927–40). Most of the old churches emerged from former mosques, including the cathedral (La Seu), built 1262–1482 and redesigned in Baroque style in 1774, with the 68 m high bell tower »El Miquelet« (Micalet; 1381–1418; landmark of the city); in the Capella del Sant Calze (1369) the “Holy Cup”, which is considered to be the cup of Christ’s Last Supper; important paintings in the cathedral museum. In addition to the churches, numerous monasteries shape the cityscape.
The Llonja de la Seda (Silk Exchange) was built by Pedro Compte († 1506) 1482–98 in late Gothic style (UNESCO World Heritage Site). In the Palau del Marquès de Dosaigües (18th century) the National Ceramic Museum. In the Colegio del Patriarca (1568–1610; patio with double arcades) u. Tapestries (16th century) and Spanish, Italian and Flemish paintings. In the former Arab granary Almodí the paleontological museum. Palau de la Generalitat (1510–79) with magnificent rooms (Saló Daurat, Saló de Corts). The Porta de Serrans (14th century) open to the city and leading to the bridge over the Túria and the Torres de Quart (15th century) have been preserved from the old fortifications.
Since the 1980s, Valencia has been developed into a center for architecture and art of modern and contemporary art (including the 1989 opening of the IVAM [Valencian Institute for Modern Art. Center Julio González]; 1998 inauguration of the “Palau de Congressos” by N. Foster). The preliminary highlight of this development was the opening of the “Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències” (1991–2004; design: F. Candela and S. Calatrava), a culture and science park (including a planetarium and cinema, Science Museum and Marine Science Park). The architectural eye-catcher of the spacious complex is the one designed by Calatrava built Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía (opened in 2005), a venue for opera, concerts and theater.
According to agooddir, Valencia, perhaps a Greek foundation, was founded in 138 BC. BC Roman veterans colony (Valentia); Bishopric since the 4th century. In 413 it was conquered by the Visigoths and in 713 by the Arabs. From 800 onwards they laid out a large Vega and built the city as Balansija into one of the economically and culturally most important metropolises of the Islamic Iberian Peninsula, which also became the seat of the emirate (foundation of the residential complex Ar-Rusafa, today the city district of the same name) and for over 150 years Was the center of Arabic poetry. From 1010–94 Valencia was the capital of an Arab sub-empire (Taifa), in 1094 it was conquered by the Cid, taken over by the Almoravids in 1102 and the heavily fortified capital of a Moorish kingdom. 1238 of James I of Catalonia-Aragon conquered, Valencia became the capital of the Kingdom of Valencia, which had a certain autonomy within the Crown of Catalonia-Aragon with its own administration, legislation and its own parliament (until 1707). During the Spanish Civil War, Valencia was the seat of the republican government from November 1936 to October 1937 and only surrendered on March 30, 1939 (two days after Madrid).