Canada Administration, Population, and Finance

Administrative division. – In 1940 one of the two territories with special jurisdiction, the Yukon, was eliminated as such. This region (536,304 sq km and 4,914 residents in 1941) was united with British Columbia.

Explorations. – An expedition of three missionaries (Fr Dutilly, Fr Lepage and Fr Dagenais) took place in 1945 in the northwestern region of Labrador, between Richmond Gulf and Ungava Bay. The expedition that traveled 640 km. by canoe and 40 on foot, he reported about 4 thousand types of plants of the sub-Arctic flora.

Subarctic regions. – In recent years, the attention of Canadians to the subarctic regions has become more intense. The two traditional resources: fur and timber are now associated with the exploitation of oil fields near the Mackenzie River, those of uranium near the Great Bear Lake, and those of gold at Yellowknife. A road about 500 km long is also under construction. which from Grimshaw, the terminus of the Northern Alberta Railway network, leads to Hay River on the Great Slave Lake. Meanwhile, the navigability conditions of the Mackenzie River are also improved.

In the area of ​​the subarctic archipelago there have been numerous expeditions: two by TH Manning in 1933-35 and in 1937, on the island of Southampthon, located north of Hudson Bay, and another by R. Bentham from 1936 to 1938. in the Land of Ellesmere. There have been extensive observations on topographical, geological and ornithological conditions.

Population. – According to 800zipcodes, the population of the dominion at the 1941 census was 11,506,655 residents with an increase of 1,129,869 residents compared to the previous census. An estimate of January 1947 gave 12,582,000 residents (dens. 1,3). However, the rate of increase decreased slightly, as it fell from 17.6 ‰ in the 1921-31 period to 14.2 ‰ in the 1931-41 period and 11.4 ‰ in the 1941-47 period. This decrease is produced both by the contraction in migratory flows, by a reduction in the surplus rate of births over the dead, and by the war.

Regarding nationality, the 1941 census gave as centesimal rates: 51.9% British and American; 31.6% French; 16.7% other nationalities represented especially by Germans (4.2%), Scandinavians (2.2%), Aborigines (1.2%), Italians (1.0%), etc. Compared to the 1931 census there is an increase in the French and a stationary Anglo-American element. In constant, even if negligible increase, the Italians.

With regard to religious professions, there was a notable increase in Catholics (33.9% in 1931 and 40% in 1941): much less alive than that felt by Protestants (49.1% in 1931 and 52% in 1941). The Israelites decreased sharply (1.5% in 1941).

Urbanism remains a fundamental demographic characteristic: 23.8% of the population (22% in 1931) is gathered in cities with more than one hundred thousand residents, which from 7 (in 1931) are now 8.

Main cities: Montreal 903,007 residents; Toronto 667,457 residents; Vancouver 275,353 (with the suburbs 409,975); Winnipeg 221.960 residents; Hamilton 166,337 residents; Ottawa 154,951 residents; Quebec 150,757 residents; Windsor 105,311 residents; Edmonton 93,817 pop.; Calgary 88,904 residents; London 78,264 residents; Halifax 70,488 residents.

Commerce. – During the war years, Canada further accentuated its prevalence of exports over imports. The average for the period 1936-46 is 1248 million dollars of imports against 1790 million dollars of exports.

Finance. – The conduct of the war naturally affected the financial situation of the dominion. Almost half of the actual cost of the war was covered by ordinary income, the proceeds of which have more than tripled since the start of hostilities, through a considerable increase in the tax burden.

The total consolidated domestic public debt (state and provinces) went from $ 4.9 billion in 1939 to $ 12.4 billion as of March 31, 1948. Canada’s participation in the Allied financial effort during the war was substantial: in 1943 the dominion granted Great Britain a free donation of 1 billion dollars. In 1944, 1945, 1946 the contribution of the dominion to the mutual assistance of the United States resulted in allocations of approximately 913,792, 767 million dollars respectively. A further contribution to the recovery of the United Kingdom, and above all to facilitate the achievement of balance of payments equilibrium in the transition period, was the loan of $ 1,250 million granted in March 1946.

The fiduciary circulation increased from $ 281 million in 1939 to $ 1,109 million as of May 31, 1948; the Bank of Canada’s gold reserve, amounting to $ 210.8 million in 1939, was transferred to the Foreign Exchange Stabilization Fund in 1940, as were the foreign exchange reserves, except for a limited amount which was left to the bank for current operations. With the establishment of foreign exchange control (September 16, 1939), the Canadian dollar had been stabilized at a rate below that of the United States by about 10 per cent.; with a measure dated July 5, 1946, the Canadian government revalued the dollar bringing it back to par with the US and an average exchange rate of 4.03 with the pound sterling.

In order to ensure credit to industrial companies that present development opportunities, thus integrating the action of other credit institutions, the Industrial Development Bank was established in August 1944, with a capital of 25 million dollars fully subscribed by the Bank. of Canada; from 1 November 1944 to 30 September 1947 the Bank had already carried out 443 operations, granting loans and guarantees and making investments, for a total of approximately 27 million dollars. Canada participates, as original member, in the Bretton Woods Institutes with a share of 300 million dollars for the Monetary Fund and 325 million for the World Bank.

Canada Administration, Population, and Finance