Oceania

Australia History Between 1788 and 1830 – Criminal Colonization Part IV

While thus, through breeding, colonization in the future colonies of Queensland and Victoria was extended, England, for fear of seeing another power, France, set foot on the Australian continent, which at the time hinted at resurrecting from its colonial hibernation, it occupied the Swan River district in Western Australia in 1829. To attract English immigration, the government offered emigrants who landed before January 1, 1831, free concessions of land, in proportion to the value of the capital introduced by the colonists in the country.

According to A2zdirectory, even here the origins of the colonization were stunted, due to the lack of the concessionaries of capital adequate to the vast lands obtained and the manpower necessary to undertake the cultivation, the aridity of the soil, the hostility of the natives, here more proud than elsewhere. However, despite the repeated failures of the early pioneers, even Western Australia, organized in colony with 1 June 1829, saw the establishment of lasting establishments in Freemantle and Perth; waiting for the partial adoption also in it of a new method of colonization, the so-called systematic colonization, and, even more so, the pouring on it after 1850 of the criminal current of deportees, now repudiated by the other Australian colonies, came to re-bleed it from a demographic and economic point of view. Indeed, the colonial events of Western Australia, where the difficulty of making it proceed if not hand in hand, at least in a sufficiently adequate relationship with occupation and cultivation of the soil, seemed more eloquent and suggestive than ever, accredited the new colonization system, devised by Wakefield, which was then becoming the dogma of a colonial school in England. While so at the origins of New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, he had presided over the criminal deportation, followed, on a more or less long term and on a more or less vast scale, by free individual immigration of a predominantly capitalist character; to the colonization of Western Australia partially and much more widely,

After 1830, therefore, Australian colonization loses its character of essentially penal colonization. Indeed, the more the class of true settlers grows in number and strength, the more lively the movement against the Convict system becomes., in the same colonies in which he had thrown wider roots, both for the historical antagonism between free and servile labor, and for the need to establish a more productive system of work in the colony, with the rapid growth of the Australian population after 1830. In fact, agitation rapidly triumphed in New South Wales, where in 1838 the servitude of deportees ceased and in 1840 even deportation; while it later reaches its end where the settler class was still less numerous: in Queensland in 1850; in Tasmania with 1853. In Western Australia, on the other hand, where the Convict system was welcomed and solicited by squatters, it continues until 1868. In the historical life of the Australian continent taken as a whole, criminal deportation ceased to fulfill its colonial function in 1830. Despite all its material and even more moral and social drawbacks, despite the original flaw left by it in the primitive Australian social body, in its own pastoral aristocracy, made up in no small part of ex-convicts, the Australian colonial deportation had not only displaced the prisons of the metropolis and alleviated the prison expenses of it, but also socially and even morally redeemed a not small part of the delinquents deported there and given the first demographic and economic impulse to the European colonization of the most depopulated and remote of the new continents, in a a time when European colonial stimuli were still lazy and latent. The Merivale calculated that, until 1836, the individuals freely immigrated to Australia and Tasmania had not yet exceeded 45,000, compared to the 103,000 deported until then. Having revealed itself in Australia, as elsewhere, unable to ensure the definitive colonization of the country by its own forces, that system offered in the very new world the brightest historical proof of its ability to at least successfully initiate the colonization of countries to which the spontaneous emigration of the working force naturally flows. The same reluctance, after 1830, of the new society, which it promoted, to keep it in force for a longer time, because by now from being an engine that had become a reluctance to colonization, it was the best proof of the relatively advanced stage of development to which it had brought that nascent colonial society to its oldest home, New South Wales, the Australian mother colony. Around 1830, this colony, which still politically embraced the entire Australian continent (except for the new colony of Western Australia) and the island of Tasmania itself, although distinct in its administrative organization, included a population of about 50,000 residents. Still economically and socially dominated by pastoral capitalism, New South Wales had then received politically, with a royal charter of 1829, a larger government, consisting of the governor, by a legislative council of 15 members nominated by the king, chaired by the governor, and an executive council of three members, also chosen by the Crown from among the members of the Legislative Council. It was precisely this reorganized legislative council, which still in 1829 instituted judging by jury in its first session, that offered newcomers those legal guarantees so dear to the Anglo-Saxon element and facilitated spontaneous immigration into the very new world.

Australia History Between 1788 and 1830 - Criminal Colonization Part IV