General: Colonized by English settlers from St. Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was ruled by Great Britain until the beginning of the 19th century, when, against the outcry of the inhabitants, the island was incorporated into one British possession along with the island of St. Kitts and the island of Nevis. Several attempts to separate ended unsuccessfully. In 1971, according to A2ZDIRECTORY, Anguilla finally received permission to secede; this decision formally took effect in 1980, when Anguilla became a separate dependent territory of Great Britain. Geography
Location: An island in the Caribbean, east of Puerto Rico.
Geographical coordinates: 18° 15′ N. latitude, 63° S’W. e.
Reference map: Central America and the Caribbean.
Area: total: 91 sq. km.; land surface area: 91 km2; water surface area: 0 km2
Comparative area: Approximately half the area of Washington, D.C.
Land borders: 0 km.
Coastline: 61 km.
Maritime claims: exclusive fishing rights zone: 200 nautical miles; territorial waters: 3 nautical miles.
Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds.
Relief: a flat and low island formed by corals and limestones.
Maximum and minimum heights: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m; highest point: Crocus hipl 65 m.
Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster.
Land use: arable land: 0%; cultivated land: 0%; pasture: 0%; forests and plantations: 0%; others: 100% (mostly rocks, occasional stunted oaks and other few trees; a few saline lakes being exploited).
Irrigated land: no data.
Natural Hazards: Frequent hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October).
Current environmental issues: supplies of drinking water (mainly due to poor distribution system) cannot always meet the growing demand.
International agreements on environmental protection:
Note to the section “Geography”:
Population: 12,132 (July 2001 est.).
Age structure: under 14: 25.55% (male 1,574; female 1,526); 15 to 64 years old: 67.47% (male 4,200; female 3,985); over 65: 6.98% (male 376; female 471) (2001 est.).
Population growth: 2.67% (2001 est.).
Birth rate: 15.17 newborns / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Mortality: 5.61 deaths / 1000 people. (2001 est.).
Migration: 17.23 people /1000 people (2001 est.).
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male/female; under 15: 1.03 male/female; 15 to 64 years old: 1.05 male/female; over 65: 0.8 male/female; for the general population: 1.03 male/female. (2001 est.);
Child mortality: 24.56 deaths/1000 live births (2001 est.).
Life expectancy: for the general population: 76.31 years; men: 73.41 years; women: 79.29 years (2001 est.);
General birth rate: 1.79 children/wives. (2000 OTs.).
Proportion of the adult population infected with HIV: no data available.
Number of people infected with HIV: no data.
AIDS mortality: no data available.
Nationality: noun: resident of Anguilla; adjective: Anguilla.
Ethnic groups: black.
Believers: Anglicans 40%, Methodists 33%, Seventh-day Adventists 7%, Baptists 5%, Catholics 3%, other 12%.
Language(s): English (official).
Literacy: definition: persons aged 12 and over who can read and write; for the general population: 95%; men: 95%; women: 95% (1984 est.). State Name:
Common long form: no;
Common short form: Anguilla Dependency State: British Overseas Territory.
State structure: no data.
Administrative division: none (overseas territory of Great Britain).
Independence: none (overseas territory of Great Britain).
National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May.
Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Regulations, adopted April 1, 1982; amended 1990.
Legal system: based on English common law.
Suffrage: from 18 years old; universal.
head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since February 6, 1952); represented by Governor Peter JOHNSTON (effective November 1, 1995);
head of government: Chief Minister Osbourne FLEMING (since 3 March 2000);
Government: executive council appointed by the governor from among the members of the House of Assembly; elections: no; hereditary monarchy; the governor is appointed by the monarch; the chief minister is appointed by the governor from the newly elected members of the House of Assembly.
Legislature: unicameral House of Assembly (total 11 seats, 7 members are elected by direct universal suffrage, 2 members are ex officio, 2 members are appointed; term of office is 5 years); elections: last held 3 March 2000 (next to be held in March 2005); election results: distribution of votes between parties: no data; seat distribution among parties: UF 4, AUM 2, independent 1.
Judiciary: High Court (judge provided by the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court).
Political parties and leaders: Anguilla United Movement (AUM) (Hubert HUGHES); United Front (UF), a coalition of the Anguilla Democratic Party (ADP) (Victor BANKS) and the Anguilla National Alliance (ANA) (Osborne FLEMING).
Political influence groups and their leaders:
Participation in international organizations: Ca-ricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate), ECLAC (associate).
Diplomatic representation in the United States: none (overseas territory of Great Britain).
US Diplomatic Representation: None (UK Overseas Territory).
Flag description: blue, with the flag of Great Britain in the upper left square and with the coat of arms of Anguilla in the center of the outer (right) part of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins closing in a circle on a white background with blue wavy lines at the bottom representing water.
Economy overview: Anguilla has few natural resources and the economy is heavily dependent on the luxury tourism sector, offshore banking, lobster fishing and remittances from expatriates. The economy, especially the tourism industry, experienced a severe contraction in late 1995 due to the effects of September’s Hurricane Louis, but recovered in 1996. Increased tourism activity, which boosted the construction sector, contributed to the economic recovery. The Angui-pyi government is making significant efforts to develop the offshore financial sector. The Comprehensive Financial Services Bill came into force at the end of 1994. In the medium term, economic development will depend on the tourism industry, and therefore on continued income growth in developed countries and on favorable weather conditions.
GDP: Purchasing Power Parity $96 million (1999 est.)
Real GDP growth rate: 7% (1999 est.).
GDP per capita: PPP $8,200 (1999 est.)
The composition of GDP by sectors of the economy: agriculture: 4%; industry: 18%; services: 78% (1997 est.).
Proportion of the population below the poverty line: no data available.
Percentage distribution of household income or consumption: 10% of the poorest households account for: n/a; 10% of the wealthiest families account for: no data.
Inflation rate at consumer prices: 2.5% (1998 est.).
Labor force: 4,400 people (1992).
Employment structure: trade 36%, services 29%, construction 18%, transport and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%, agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining 4%.
Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.).
Budget: revenues: $20.4 million; expenses: $23.3 million, including capital expenditures of $3.8 million (1997 est.).
Economic sectors: tourism, construction of small vessels, offshore financial services.
Growth in industrial production: 3.1% (1997 est.).
Electricity production: no data.
Sources of electricity generation: fossil fuels: no data available; hydropower: no data; nuclear fuel: no data; others: no data.
Electricity consumption: no data.
Export of electricity: no data.
Electricity import: no data.
Agricultural products: a small amount of tobacco, vegetables; Breeding cattle.
Export: $4.5 million (1998)
Exports: lobster, fish, livestock, salt.
Export partners: no data.
Import: $57.6 million (1998)
Import articles: no data.
Import partners: no data.
External debt: $8.8 million (1998) Economic aid recipient: $3.5 million (1995)
Economic aid donor:
Currency: East Caribbean dollar.
Currency code: XCD.
Exchange rate: XCD/USD – 2.7000 (fixed exchange rate since 1976).
Fiscal year: 1 April – 31 March.
Telecommunications Telephone lines: 5,000 (1997).
Mobile cellular phones: no data available.
Telephone system: internal: modern internal telephone system; international: microwave radio relay to Saint Martin, Guadeloupe and the Dutch Antilles.
Broadcast stations: AM -5, FM -6, shortwave -1 (1998).
Radio receivers: 3,000 (1997).
Television broadcast stations: 1 (1997).
Televisions: 1,000 (1997).
Internet country code: ai
Internet service providers: 16 (2000).
Number of users: no data.
Transport Railways: 0 km.
Roads: total: 279 km; coated: 253 km, unpaved: 26 km (1998 est.).
Ports and harbors: Blowin Point, Road Bay.
Merchant fleet: none (2000 est.).
Airports: 3 (2000 est.).
Airports with paved runways: total: 1; from 914 to 1523 m: 1 (2000 est.).
Airports with unpaved runways: total: 2; less than 914 m: 2 (2000 est.).
International issues International disputes: no.
Illicit Drugs: Used as a transit point for South American drugs bound for the US and Western Europe.